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《抗击新冠肺炎疫情的中国行动》白皮书(全文中英对照)VII

发布时间: 2020-06-13 09:07:26   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 国务院新闻办公室6月7日发布《抗击新冠肺炎疫情的中国行动》白皮书,全文中英对照如下。



  对轻症患者及早干预治疗。及时收治轻症患者,及早实施医疗干预,尽量减少轻症转为重症。完善临床救治体系,全国共指定1万余家定点医院,对新冠肺炎患者实行定点集中治疗。建立全国医疗救治协作网络,通过远程会诊方式提供技术支持。武汉市针对患者数量急剧增长、80%左右是轻症的情况,集中力量将一批体育场馆、会展中心等改造成16家方舱医院,床位达到1.4万余张,使轻症患者应收尽收、应治尽治,减少了社区感染传播,减少了轻症向重症转化。16家方舱医院累计收治患者1.2万余人,累计治愈出院8000余人、转院3500余人,实现“零感染、零死亡、零回头”。方舱医院是阻击重大传染病的重大创新,使“应收尽收”“床位等人”成为现实,有力扭转了防控形势。英国《柳叶刀》社论认为,“中国建造的方舱庇护医院对于缓解医疗卫生系统所承受的巨大压力有着至关重要的作用”。(注2)

Early intervention for patients with mild symptoms.China has been quick to have patients with mild symptoms admitted to designated medical facilities for early medical intervention, and has done its best to prevent mild cases from worsening. The national clinical treatment network has been expanded to include more than 10,000 hospitals dedicated to the treatment of Covid-19 patients. A national network of medical treatment coordination has also been formed to provide technical support through online consultation.

In Wuhan, faced with surging infections and considering that 80 percent of cases were mild, the city government mobilized resources to repurpose stadiums and exhibition centers into 16 temporary treatment centers. With some 14,000 beds, these centers were able to admit all confirmed mild cases for treatment. This helped to reduce infections and virus transmission in communities and prevent mild cases from worsening. The 16 treatment centers received a total of more than 12,000 patients; 8,000 and more were cured and discharged; and more than 3,500 were transferred to hospitals. While in service, these facilities had zero cases of infection, death, or relapse.

Temporary treatment centers, or Fangcang shelter hospitals, are a major innovative solution that provided enough beds to admit all confirmed cases, thus turning the tide in the battle against Covid-19. An article in The Lancet wrote, “To relieve the huge pressure on the healthcare system, Fangcang shelter hospitals have also been crucial.”2

  及时总结推广行之有效的诊疗方案。坚持边实践、边研究、边探索、边总结、边完善,在基于科学认知和证据积累的基础上,将行之有效的诊疗技术和科技研究成果纳入诊疗方案。先后制修订7版新冠肺炎诊疗方案,3版重型、危重型病例诊疗方案,2版轻型、普通型管理规范,2版康复者恢复期血浆治疗方案,1版新冠肺炎出院患者主要功能障碍康复治疗方案,提高了医疗救治工作的科学性和规范性。最新的第7版新冠肺炎诊疗方案增加病理改变内容,增补和调整临床表现、诊断标准、治疗方法和出院标准等,并纳入无症状感染者可能具有感染性、康复者恢复期血浆治疗等新发现。目前,第7版诊疗方案已被多个国家借鉴和采用。强化治愈出院患者隔离管理和健康监测,加强复诊复检和康复,实现治疗、康复和健康监测一体化全方位医疗服务。注重孕产妇、儿童等患者差异性诊疗策略,实现不同人群诊疗方案的全覆盖。

Reviewing diagnostic and therapeutic plans and applying effective ones on a broad scale.China’s diagnostic and therapeutic plans for Covid-19 have been developed and improved through clinical practice, medical research, experimentation and regular reviews. Based on scientific knowledge and accumulated evidence, R&D results and the diagnostic and therapeutic regimens that proved effective were incorporated in the national diagnosis and treatment plans. These include seven versions of the diagnosis and treatment protocol, three editions of the protocol for severe and critical cases, two editions of the manual for mild case management, two editions of convalescent plasma therapy treatment protocol, and one rehabilitation treatment program for patients discharged from hospitals. All these protocols and plans have contributed to science-based treatment of patients and the establishment of standards for medical treatment.

In Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Covid-19 (Trial Version 7), information on pathological changes, clinical symptoms, criteria for diagnosis, therapies, and criteria for patient discharge was added or updated. The protocol states that asymptomatic cases may be contagious. It also notes that plasma from convalescent cases may work in treating the infected. This edition has been adopted or used for reference in a number of countries.

Concerning discharged patients, quarantining, monitoring of their health and rehabilitation, and reexamination and re-testing have all been strengthened. Integrated medical services covering treatment, rehabilitation and health monitoring have been put in place. Differentiated treatment approaches have been adopted for children and pregnant women, among other groups.

  充分发挥中医药特色优势。坚持中西医结合、中西药并用,发挥中医药治未病、辨证施治、多靶点干预的独特优势,全程参与深度介入疫情防控,从中医角度研究确定病因病基、治则治法,形成了覆盖医学观察期、轻型、普通型、重型、危重型、恢复期发病全过程的中医诊疗规范和技术方案,在全国范围内全面推广使用。中医医院、中医团队参与救治,中医医疗队整建制接管定点医院若干重症病区和方舱医院,其他方舱医院派驻中医专家。中医药早期介入、全程参与、分类救治,对轻症患者实施中医药早介入早使用;对重症和危重症患者实行中西医结合;对医学观察发热病人和密切接触者服用中药提高免疫力;对出院患者实施中医康复方案,建立全国新冠肺炎康复协作网络,提供康复指导。中医药参与救治确诊病例的占比达到92%。湖北省确诊病例中医药使用率和总有效率超过90%。筛选金花清感颗粒、连花清瘟胶囊/颗粒、血必净注射液和清肺排毒汤、化湿败毒方、宣肺败毒方等“三药三方”为代表的针对不同类型新冠肺炎的治疗中成药和方药,临床疗效确切,有效降低了发病率、转重率、病亡率,促进了核酸转阴,提高了治愈率,加快了恢复期康复。

Leveraging the unique strength of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Both TCM and Western medicine were used and traditional Chinese and Western drugs administered. China has leveraged the unique strength of TCM in preemptive prevention, differentiated medication, and multi-targeted intervention, and at every step of Covid-19 treatment and control. The etiology and pathogen of the disease were analyzed and confirmed through TCM methodology, as were the principles and methods of treatment. A set of TCM diagnosis and treatment protocols were developed to cover the entire process of medical observation, treatment of mild, moderate, severe, and critical cases, and recovery, and they have been applied nationwide.

TCM hospitals were used in the treatment of Covid-19 patients, and TCM teams took charge of and ran some wards for patients in severe condition at designated hospitals and some treatment centers. All the other shelter hospitals had resident TCM experts. TCM has played its part in the entire process of Covid-19 response, from early intervention to administering case-specific treatment. TCM drugs and treatment methods were used for early intervention and treatment of patients with mild symptoms; for patients with severe symptoms they were used in combination with Western medicine; for those under medical observation for fever and those who had been in close contact with confirmed cases they served to improve immunity; they helped to strengthen the constitution of those who had recovered. A national TCM coordination network was formed to offer guidance to patients recovering from the disease.

Chinese herbal formulas and drugs were administered to 92 percent of all confirmed cases. In Hubei Province, more than 90 percent of confirmed cases received TCM treatment that proved effective. Jinhua Qinggan Granules, Lianhua Qingwen Capsules/Granules, Xuebijing Injection, Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Preparation, Dampness Resolving and Detoxifying Preparation, Lung Diffusing and Detoxifying Preparation, and other TCM drugs and herbal formulas have proved effective in treating different types of Covid-19 patients. They have significantly reduced the incidence rate, prevented cases with mild symptoms from worsening, increased the cure rate, lowered the fatality rate, helped nucleic acid turn negative, and sped up the rehabilitation of recovered Covid-19 patients.



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