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《中国特色社会主义法律体系》(中英对照)V

发布时间: 2018-04-11 09:51:41   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 《中国特色社会主义法律体系》(中英对照),粘贴出来供大家参考。


  社会法。社会法是调整劳动关系、社会保障、社会福利和特殊群体权益保障等方面的法律规范,遵循公平和谐和国家适度干预原则,通过国家和社会积极履行责任,对劳动者、失业者、丧失劳动能力的人以及其他需要扶助的特殊人群的权益提供必要的保障,维护社会公平,促进社会和谐。截至2011年8月底,中国已制定社会法方面的法律18件和一大批规范劳动关系和社会保障的行政法规、地方性法规。


    中国制定了劳动法,将劳动关系以及与劳动关系密切联系的劳动保护、劳动安全卫生、职业培训以及劳动争议、劳动监察等关系纳入调整范围,确立了中国的基本劳动制度;制定了矿山安全法、职业病防治法、安全生产法等法律,对安全生产、职业病预防等事项作了规定,加强了对劳动者权益的保护;制定了劳动合同法、就业促进法和劳动争议调解仲裁法,建立健全了适应社会主义市场经济的劳动合同、促进就业和解决劳动争议的制度;制定了红十字会法、公益事业捐赠法和基金会管理条例等法律法规,建立健全了促进社会公益事业发展和管理的制度;制定了工会法,并先后两次进行修订,确定了工会在国家政治、经济和社会生活中的地位,明确了工会的权利和义务,对工会依法维护劳动者的合法权益发挥了积极作用。


    中国重视社会保障制度建设,制定了社会保险法,确立了覆盖城乡全体居民的社会保险体系,建立了基本养老保险、基本医疗保险、工伤保险、失业保险和生育保险五项保险制度,保障公民在年老、患病、工伤、失业、生育等情况下,能够获得必要的物质帮助和生活保障;明确基本养老保险基金逐步实行全国统筹,其他社会保险基金逐步实行省级统筹;规定了劳动者在不同统筹地区就业社会保险关系转移接续制度。国务院还制定了失业保险条例、工伤保险条例和社会保险费征缴暂行条例、农村五保供养工作条例等行政法规,并决定建立新型农村养老保险和新型农村合作医疗制度,对推动社会保障制度建设,发挥了重要作用。社会保障制度的逐步确立,为中国政府依法加快社会保障体系建设,维护社会公平,构建和谐社会,提供了法制保障。目前,中国的社会保障覆盖面越来越大,逐步从国有企业扩大到各类社会经济组织,从单位职工扩大到灵活就业人员和居民,从城镇扩大到农村。截至2010年底,城镇职工养老保险制度覆盖2.57亿人,比2002年增加了约1.7倍;新型农村养老保险制度覆盖了1.03亿人;城乡基本医疗保险覆盖12.6亿人,是2002年的13倍;工伤保险参保1.61亿人;失业保险、生育保险覆盖面也迅速扩大。国务院还制定了城市生活无着的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法、法律援助条例、自然灾害救助条例、城市居民最低生活保障条例等行政法规,并决定建立农村最低生活保障制度,中国覆盖城乡的社会救助体系已基本建立。截至2010年底,中国共有7700万困难群众享受最低生活保障待遇。中国社会保障的水平不断提高,人民群众切实共享发展成果。


Social laws. China's social laws are the collection of laws and regulations with respect to the adjustment of labor relations, social security, social welfare and protection of the rights and interests of special groups. It follows the principle of justice, harmony and appropriate state intervention. By performing their duties, the state and society provide necessary protection for the rights and interests of laborers, the unemployed, the incapacitated for work, as well as other special groups in need of help so as to safeguard social equity and promote social harmony. By the end of August 2011, China had enacted 18 laws in this particular field and a large number of administrative and local regulations to regulate labor relations and social security.


China's Labor Law deals with labor relations and other relationships closely related to them, such as labor protection, labor safety and hygiene, occupational training, labor disputes and labor supervision, thus establishing China's basic labor system. China has enacted the Law on Mine Safety, Law on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases, and Production Safety Law and some other laws, making provisions for safe production and prevention of occupational diseases, and strengthening the protection of the rights and interests of laborers. It has enacted the Labor Contract Law, Employment Promotion Law, and Law on Labor Dispute Mediation and Arbitration, thus establishing and improving the system, which is suited to the socialist market economy, of labor contract, employment promotion and labor dispute settlement. It has enacted the Red Cross Society Law, Law on Donation for Public Welfare Undertakings and Regulations on Foundation Administration, thereby establishing and improving the system that promotes the development and administration of public welfare undertakings. It has formulated the Trade Union Law and revised it twice, defining the status of trade unions in the country's political, economic and social life, clarifying the rights and obligations of trade unions, and playing an active role in safeguarding laborers' legitimate rights and interests in accordance with the law.

China attaches importance to the building of its social security system. It has enacted the Social Insurance Law, established a social insurance system which covers both rural and urban residents, basic endowment insurance, basic health insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance, guaranteeing that all citizens can get necessary material aid and living allowances when they get old, sick, injured or unemployed, or give birth. It stipulates that the basic endowment funds should be managed at the national level, and other social insurance funds managed at the provincial level. It has set up a system for the inter-regional transfer of laborers' social security. The State Council has enacted the Regulations on Unemployment Insurance, Regulations on Work-related Injury Insurance, Provisional Regulations on Collection and Payment of Social Insurance Premiums, and Regulations on the Work Regarding the Rural Five Guarantees. It has decided to establish a new rural endowment insurance and new rural cooperative health care system. They all play an important role in promoting the building of a social security system. The gradual establishment of the social security system provides legal guarantee for the Chinese government to accelerate the building of the social security network in accordance with the law, safeguard social equality and build a harmonious society. At present, the coverage of China's social security is expanding from state-owned enterprises to various social and economic organizations, from workers and staff members of organizations to self-employed people and other residents, and from the urban areas to the rural areas. By the end of 2010 the endowment insurance system of urban workers covered 257 million people, an increase of 1.7 times compared with 2002, and the new rural endowment insurance system covered 103 million people. The basic health insurance for rural and urban residents covered 1.26 billion people, 13 times the number in 2002. Work-related injury insurance covered 161 million people. The coverage of unemployment insurance and maternity insurance is also expanding rapidly. The State Council has also formulated the Measures for Assisting Vagrants and Beggars with No Means of Support in Cities, Regulations on Legal Aid, Regulations on Natural Disaster Relief, and Regulations on Minimum Subsistence Allowance for Urban Residents, and has decided to set up a minimum subsistence allowance program for rural residents, thus basically establishing a social relief system covering both urban and rural areas. By the end of 2010 some 77 million residents with financial difficulties in China received minimum subsistence allowance. The level of China's social security is constantly improving, and people are sharing the fruits of development.



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